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Data Spotlight: Constitutions



Constitutions are vital pieces of cultural and legal history, offering us the ability to understand the structure of societies, both living and dead. For these reasons, today’s data spotlight will put the focus on national constitutions archived on the permaweb!


Credit for the majority of these constitutions goes to the Constitute Project, which is which is dedicated to collecting and cleverly indexing the world’s constitutions. The Constitute Project’s web interface also allows for direct comparison between constitutions, which is worth noting isn’t possible with each PDF in isolation. Also, additional information and documentation has been collected from across the web to supplement the Constitute Project’s excellent array of documents.


We have uploaded all of these important documents to the permaweb, where they will be preserved forever, to be explored and educate future generations.



Constitutions: The basics


Constitutions are a set of laws, rules, or precedents defining how a nation is to be governed. Constitutional documents vary wildly in format and content between nations, as you might expect.


Codified Constitutions

First page of the constitution of the United States (1787)

Some nations have a fully ‘codified’ constitution, which means all of these rules and descriptions have been condensed into a single document. The United States of America, for example, has the world’s oldest fully codified constitution, originally written in 1787, with the most recent amendment being ratified in 1992. Even a fully codified constitution like the USA is therefore not a static document, but is subject to revision and addition.


Uncodified Constitutions


However, other nations like the United Kingdom or New Zealand have largely uncodified constitutions (i.e. ‘unwritten’ constitutions). This means that there is no single document that comprises constitutional law, but rather these rules are spread over a wide range of documents typically written over a long period of time.

The Magna Carta (1215), the first known charter of rights in the UK

For example the UK constitution includes all of the following: parts of the Magna Carta (written in 1215!), Acts of Parliament, and even unspoken and unwritten conventions and rules. As you might imagine, this can get confusing! If the UK constitution interests you, check out this 2015 UK Parliament report discussing it further, including some reform proposals.




Reinstated Constitutions


Austria


Interestingly, there are several constitutions in this archive collection that have been suspended at some point and then later reinstated. I thought it would be interesting to dive into some of these to find out why a constitution might be suspended, why it might be reinstated, and what happens to the country in the meantime.

Austria’s current coat of arms, note the broken chains

Let’s take Austria’s current constitution, which was first created in 1920. When Austria was annexed by the German Nazi regime in 1938, Austria itself ceased to become an independent, sovereign nation. As such, Austria’s own national constitution was automatically suspended, only being reinstated when Austria once again declared itself an independent nation and separated from Nazi rule in May 1945. The nation was also required to suspend their national coat of arms whilst under Nazi control. When reinstated, a pair of broken chains were added to the feet of the icon’s eagle, representing the nation’s liberation from National Socialism. So, with Austria, the suspension of the constitution was directly related to the suspension of national sovereignty as a whole.


I noticed a common theme in many reinstated constitutions in this collection — national governments being ousted by military coups. The new governing force then often immediately suspends the old constitution, usually planning to put a new one in place that reflects their own ideology. For example, Bangladesh experienced a military coup, a presidential assassination, multiple periods of martial law, the dissolution of parliament, the banning of political parties, and the suspension of constitutional law in the 1970s and ’80s. Bangladesh’s constitution was finally reinstated for good in 1986, though it has had several alterations since then, including the inclusion of Islam as the national religion in 1988.


Latvia

Latvian Soviet Socialist Republic flag (top) & Latvia’s current flag (below)

One nation that experienced both constitutional interference from a foreign power and also a military coup affecting their constitution is Latvia. Latvia was occupied by the Soviet Union in 1940, when it became the ‘Latvian Soviet Socialist Republic’ a new Soviet-style constitution was enacted. In 1990 the occupation was deemed illegal because it ignored the Latvian constitution itself at the time. This opened the door to reinstating the non-Soviet Latvian constitution in 1991.


Other reinstated constitutions in this archive collection include: Algeria, 1989, reinstated 1996; Argentina, 1853, reinstated 1983; Grenada, 1973, reinstated 1991; Indonesia, 1945, reinstated 1959; Kuwait, 1962, reinstated 1992; Pakistan, 1973, reinstated 2002; Sierra Leone, 1991, reinstated 1996; and Uruguay, 1966, reinstated 1985.

Historical Constitutions


The Dominican Republic

Current flag of the Dominican Republic

One of the historical constitutions now archived on the permaweb is that of the Dominican Republic in 2010. Interestingly, the Dominican Republic has had 39 different constitutions since its independence in 1844, which is more than any other nation! This fits within an overall pattern, as South American nations generally have a high total number of constitutions in their history.


Although most historical changes to the Dominican Republic’s constitution have been fairly minor, the 2010 constitution is a different matter entirely. The 2010 constitution was extremely controversial, including a clause explicitly against same-sex marriage which reads, “The State shall promote and protect the family organization based on the institution of marriage between a man and a woman.(article 55 of the 2010 constitution). It also explicitly outlawed abortion for any reason, including in cases of rape and or threat to the mother’s life or health. To this day, abortion for any reason remains illegal in the Dominican Republic. For a more detailed discussion of the 2010 constitution, check out this article from Freedom House written shortly after it was ratified.


Other historical constitutions archived in this collection include: the Central African Republic constitutions of 2004 and 2013; Chad 1996; Republic of the Congo, 2001; Côte d’Ivoire, 2000; Egypt, 2012; Nepal, 2006; Thailand, 2007 and 2014; and Tunisia, 1959.



Constitutions in Law vs. in Practice


It is certainly worth taking a moment to acknowledge that sometimes what’s written in a country’s constitution is not what is upheld in practice. Although some countries aggressively uphold the protections in their constitutions, others fail to do so, and may even act in contradiction to their constitutional articles.


China

The ‘Five-starred Red Flag’, of the People’s Republic of China

Article 36 in China’s constitution states, “No state organ, public organization or individual may compel citizens to believe in, or not to believe in, any religion; nor may they discriminate against citizens who believe in, or do not believe in, any religion.”. However, China’s government strictly dictates how religion can and cannot be practiced in China. The state officially sanctions only five religious organisations, and further controls behaviour and practices inside of those five organisations. Additionally, members of the Community Party in China are required to be atheist. Many will be familiar with China’s persecution of the Falun Gong faith and its practitioners, with the government attempting to eradicate the belief system from China entirely, even setting up a security agency dedicated to this goal.


So, although constitutions are certainly interesting cultural artifacts, it’s vital to consider them in their wider societal context to fully understand their impact on a country and its citizens.


While talking about China’s constitution, I feel obliged to draw your attention to the 2018 amendments to the document, as they represent a further consolidation of power with the ruling party. In fact, in 2018 for the first time the constitution includes explicit reference to the Community Party of China and its leadership of the country. For those interested, I would strongly recommend this Library of Congress piece diving deeper into China’s 2018 constitutional amendments. It is also worth noting that the Constitute Project’s archived version of the Chinese constitution only includes amendments through 2004. Here is a translation with the 2018 amendments included.



A Micronation Constitution


The Principality of Sealand

Current flag of the Principality of Sealand

The Principality of Sealand is a micronation located on ‘Roughs Tower’, a small artificial structure positioned around eight miles off the coast of England. Originally, the tower was an anti-aircraft platform used by the British armed forces during the second world war. After the war, the tower was decommissioned and remained unused until occupation by pirate radio broadcasters in the 1960s. Later, Paddy Roy Bates (later known as Prince Roy of Sealand) claimed it as his own, declaring its status as an independent nation in 1975.


Although formally unrecognised by any (other!) sovereign nation, the Principality of Sealand takes its statehood very seriously, and has published two national constitutions since proclaiming its independence. The first constitution, written in 1975, can be found here, and the second written in 1989 can be found here.


Sealand’s coat of arms, motto is translated as ‘From the sea, liberty’

Although Sealand’s history as a nation has been relatively short, it has not been without intrigue, drama, and even treason. For a colourful overview of British military forces attempts to deny Sealand its statehood, check out the Sealand government’s own website here. Furthermore, in 1978, the then-Prime Minister of Sealand, Alexander Achenbach, organised a mercenary force to attack and occupy Sealand while its other leaders were on the mainland. This failed, and ultimately resulted in Achenbach being charged with treason against Sealand, and held by Sealand forces. As Achenbach held both a German and a Sealand passport, a German diplomat was dispatched to Sealand, and successfully negotiated his release. Later, Achenbach declared that he led a government in exile from Sealand, and has made continuous efforts to regain control of the micronation since then.


Regarding Sealand’s current constitution, it contains many familiar articles, such as the guarantee of equal treatment under the law regardless of sex, religion, race, language, etc., defining a line of succession, enshrinement of national languages (English and German), a currency, and the national flag. The second Sealand constitution was written in 1989 primarily to , primarily written to enshrine a constitutional monarchy rather than an absolute one, though Prince Roy retained the right to define his heirs. To explore Sealand’s constitution yourself check it out right here!



Comparing Constitutions


The Democratic People’s Republic of Korea and the Republic of Korea

Current flag of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea

I think it is worth spending some time comparing the constitutions of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, and the Republic of Korea. These nations often go by different informal names in the west of course — North Korea and South Korea, respectively.


For me personally, one unexpected aspect of both Korean constitutions was the clearly stated goal of (re)unifying Korea as a single nation, rather than the two independent states that exist today. See the preamble of both constitutions for confirmation of this. I was surprised both nations outwardly seem to share this goal, though it is perhaps more well known that this is a long-standing North Korean objective. Prior to the First World War, Korea was a single unified state for centuries, and after the Second World War Korea was divided into two nations, one (North Korea) administrated by the Soviet Union, and one (South Korea) administrated by the United States. Since that point, the two nations have become radically different places politically, economically, technologically, and in citizens’ quality of life. For instance, in 2015 North Korea’s GDP was estimated at $40 billion, compared to South Korea’s was $1.92 trillion in the same year.


One pattern I noticed was some very specific articles in the South Korean constitution that seemed to be a deliberate counterpoint to the North Korean regime. For example, the South Korean constitution makes sure to state that all individuals, regardless of social status, will be equal under the law, and that no privileged caste shall ever be recognised or established (article 11). Conversely, the North Korean constitution explicitly states that the working class and the working people are “masters of everything” and everything in society serves them (article 8, see also articles 4 and 10).


Current flag of the Republic of Korea

It is also worth noting, perhaps, that the South Korean constitution explicitly outlaws kin punishment — punishment by the state of one person for the crimes of a family member (article 13, part 3). It’s difficult to believe this isn’t a direct reaction to the ‘three generations rule’, enacted by North Korea in 1972. Under this law, when a person is convicted of more serious crimes, not only themselves but also their children and grandchildren will be punished — typically by being sent to forced labour camps.

I wholeheartedly encourage everyone to take a look at some constitutions you’re unfamiliar with. You’ll certainly get a novel insight into how certain nations are run, how they wish to define themselves to the world, and how, in practice, these things can differ greatly.


I enjoyed my deep dive into this dataset greatly, and I’m sure you will too!


Follow the Decentralised Public Library here on Medium and over on Twitter for future data spotlights! Remember, feel free to drop us an email if you have a particular dataset or collection you’d like us to archive!

Appendix


Assorted archived constitutional documents in this post:


The evolution of Austria’s coat of arms: https://arweave.net/gq7lRTQlAKi8-32-K6K7RqNH2YhH2vxlfl545vKyAQc

Austria’s current system of parliamentary democracy: https://arweave.net/tw0QALmSGlyrR0A4h4dYVI7jeeaoNP2FChNdvFa1oQc

‘On the Restoration of Independence of the Republic of Latvia’, finding the occupation of Latvia illegal: https://arweave.net/nZQA-DEF8RUIVdkTCDZN6J0kC6BPqVsuY4K2BFfsHnc

The 1975 constitution of the Principality of Sealand: https://arweave.net/3u4PN0iFhe73ZylLcfVGTsdy3VBTCo6cNo3Myetw7w0

The preamble to the 1989 constitution of the Principality of Sealand: https://arweave.net/7FiKKHutSt02U19Fs3wCLb3u9uKz2rkFxJ8ltBoB9Tw

The 1989 constitution of the Principality of Sealand: https://arweave.net/yaNPYJ1timAEHsa1ZXB1BmD93Zrap7dVxf6S2dYuKNk

Consolidated versions of the Treaty on European Union and the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union: https://arweave.net/UHW6ujFRJ8gwARMLkTn-zgOuwYuWZvxiXNaKf1G3fXw

United Kingdom’s original full text of the Magna Carta (1215): https://arweave.net/LXrxvIcX2wEAK3iNfZBtOgLIzkZLZ2DqncLssUo1tUI

A list of permaweb URLs for the constitution documents in this dataset, originally sourced from the Constitute Project:

Afghanistan, 2004: https://arweave.net/neMSj_EJU1YGLpqxGE3Wkv_k7u5BmJ1nBTEj3wlN7FQ

Albania, 1998, revised 2016: https://arweave.net/IMesNfK0OV3Ug2e1vcfDnf7r0ZrZ_jstnOyKWnJI9z8

Algeria, 1989, reinstated 1996, revised 2016: https://arweave.net/ivoTYRotWe-ctCFYDHcTwJZlfz5mAeI8n3oLj7RvqgM

Andorra, 1993: https://arweave.net/gewoqxeJo1nCPxHtpZBMdlFdMyHRKE-kVvPlTVxSdYY

Angola, 2010: https://arweave.net/8mjYHlY_DpbMoL2aORTUUBAEhNbBn2Exe6o24n2Gwgo

Antigua and Barbuda, 1981: https://arweave.net/5WyZcbhPxfdadfSqaPJBF_4mAJmq-8v3O4DSjiKAflI

Argentina, 1853, reinstated 1983, revised 1994: https://arweave.net/ggcZibFl06rl0Qe-5dQFpKJy9W54Ego_K83ekGzKDaA

Armenia, 1995 , revised 2015: https://arweave.net/wRgg2Xhbot0AQoIBeUPIBN83kP8h47kh7ICtMXDlLkE

Australia, 1901, revised 1985: https://arweave.net/ItHy1Pq2pis1MeD-je5_-N6UFZBm8_v0wN1F82uUM-M

Austria, 1920, reinstated 1945, revised 2013: https://arweave.net/mr1dF9RD8i1i8axNlyFZFI3aT1G9EKk2TAPgYD8dHR4

Azerbaijan, 1995, revised 2016: https://arweave.net/MSm8VTtpgkHoe0tG76R89XTWzhrGtZn3-KoVFmdagiU

(The) Bahamas, 1973: https://arweave.net/wg_HQDF4Dc1sxp0uCUnE7AxFVzGRaKtusozX22b6ncc

Bahrain, 2002, revised 2017: https://arweave.net/cu64tsvB7prUC3phmEWWsMMb12lbDN4O2jbtux7fLhY

Bangladesh, 1972, reinstated 1986, revised 2014: https://arweave.net/6a_OkpcH4ku4VLhjSK8zgUJodmi-I-AxYciJkIcyMW8

Barbados, 1966, revised 2007: https://arweave.net/7om7P2TCX2JfAlAubhfMRv5Mp_wFby4tc4Z38Y6WzZ0

Belarus 1994, revised 2004: https://arweave.net/91FcMaVUQWUmQ1nkTLtRnITesfbYJU4o2GYZPIiYoRI

Belgium, 1831, revised 2014: https://arweave.net/wSKGM5hH2Q9I5qmZfiaO4rBWKnIc4uj2FO8yYmp9tyg

Belize 1981, revised 2011: https://arweave.net/1e8KX8-32oQr2jQzrB3O7Rpot8Cf_brBZUpqvQXTL-0

Benin, 1990: https://arweave.net/DjTisqZQiX2rqDo_tquIoQW674a7eESsUO0UAf2cgmY

Bhutan, 2008: https://arweave.net/5cq1Jkyd47mQhVbpsQiyAakNaiBTvZa4pxLMbWKn5Wk

(Plurinational State of) Bolivia, 2009: https://arweave.net/EXse4wgye1DSh_k-tgL24hBL4F6i8H4ncbGH35yVq5I

Bosnia and Herzegovina, 1995, revised 2009: https://arweave.net/AxYHx8c-64GnplKBqO00LFnVPuQg1-TtrnlLgnZkZtE

Botswana, 1966, revised 2005: https://arweave.net/_Ig5HN9n-nQSkFwo2Ng45eWUqAWw75zErPgoUXsx7T8

Brazil, 1988, revised 2007: https://arweave.net/q_igyNe8FUVLji06X_Cmg5km8rdp5xYSkkVESr0-ZZ4

Brunei Darussalam, 1959, revised 2006: https://arweave.net/eJnpDCOKJNJvRrwymcba_XGXGZC5_x5Q4bQcTVePIC8

Bulgaria, 1991, revised 2015: https://arweave.net/1ZflknCmoYnoyxOoUUcRz6wq21PW8IrDOQITvMEp0GI

Burkina Faso, 1991, revised 2012: https://arweave.net/Mn3YxStCH6oLraw-7tV1rN0U3QLOOA8z6Zag5eNrk6Y

Burundi, 2005: https://arweave.net/jg83lBXmxbyMlt2NubGfuz5pikX63r_B6OoA1wRFb5E

Cambodia, 1993, revised 2008: https://arweave.net/LOMZjZr2GGiPKDMnQknAFSOYjArPrNekXw-4QAdRpzQ

Cameroon, 1972, revised 2008: https://arweave.net/SxeW1qzF4LMCq5g8BDWwxfc9cJYArzS6om78BRyjbu4

Canada, 1867, revised 2011: https://arweave.net/LxqUeb4p_t03jDAwTcgrR-jhFC_FCt7wY2xhNA4f9GU

Cape Verde,1980, revised 1992: https://arweave.net/Q9rt2yTqg97ZDw9kAtkGVdTBB4ePad20cQ7ZmBxsv04

Central African Republic, 2016: https://arweave.net/OXJr19Rysh-VVBbhqM1l6ALckJ5eEwE6hAUCurfam-E

Chile, 1980, revised 2015: https://arweave.net/x60jv6K4jrc61QZmD8HvZd4JYe-Zy9yFXAuRU99pKsw

(People’s Republic of) China, 1982, revised 2004: https://arweave.net/EK2FX7EbxHSd2cb0cGJFGpDfG0WDH5MhQFtW81mqlqk

Colombia, 1991, revised 2015: https://arweave.net/exiHTn41-XXGmLAfZEkqKCQvMHpcywtox8US_YSpAlk

Comoros, 2001, revised 2009: https://arweave.net/F2a6hLeu3HaXcxriOuhPUPynAxgy5ByV3pjnvLnyfLk

(Democratic Republic of the) Congo, 2005, revised 2011: https://arweave.net/WHCAsZT8IUhFOev_nYDpfxGJKFYDVCKDDwupiOXdWuc

(Republic of the) Congo, 2015: https://arweave.net/0e7k1lyvceApLryHkWlN7tHbnFH58_vJn8W-AcEFzBg

Costa Rica, 1949, revised 2015: https://arweave.net/oGmZHfwr9kVpMovTNCM77yqI8MGXFUXK_9FEP-jMoFA

Côte d’Ivoire, 2016: https://arweave.net/g2kwnD1WAkRbZoSUs28wHLbL9qTCk0FNNKdqZHKG4Ao

Croatia, 1991, revised 2013: https://arweave.net/VQV7T32S2bbVac679R5ib87y6cVSZmFaTmNmwA5h0jQ

Cuba, 1976, revised 2002: https://arweave.net/4SfzcXimvvsN8faotUp-Zc0Fo3DEqURWaQ29l2hmc7w

Cuba, 2018 (draft of 22nd July 2018): https://arweave.net/zpmktruSEREuikKVbW7VBcAf9bhdJb1mf5GYRLdGTJo

Cuba, 2019 (draft of 5th January 2019): https://arweave.net/RnbQNJ5Hnevt2ILjgdTzHV28QGx5-QkiZs4BAOJkpIc

Cyprus, 1960, revised 2013: https://arweave.net/Uq6WPs71b6wBoNw6-peRSNAVIKUV2-KUUWyX1m4dng0

Czech Republic, 1993, revised 2013: https://arweave.net/BXCKsiM8SQetz94nYFucgDdtj1SyRaea4AJGnak49AQ

Denmark, 1953: https://arweave.net/lh0HvSa6vePjb5__reDPwjlMhfrh84WrgclgcIczGbs

Djibouti, 1992, revised 2010: https://arweave.net/XihTMr6o7nnLkXdJeJWn3I3uPbbNOallpeEdeP0FejM

Dominica, 1978, revised 2014: https://arweave.net/A0P_USU7TU76SjliN_MLCKuJLfyVfWzPNuXbpvFhAFw

Dominican Republic, 2015: https://arweave.net/nZ_1cUd6D6_RHp-9MOn76i5ECoNwp7cK8Gsy7-nB-m4

Ecuador, 2008, revised 2015: https://arweave.net/gZJzOBcsHffcRWue_AE0JkjYR0G34DX7SZVbTQWaJ08

Egypt, 2014: https://arweave.net/Bmz8MxhNiZj6v3uLMjM1JDAC3OK8m74Grgx_W1sgwvA

El Salvador, 1983, revised 2014: https://arweave.net/jZLq6wMPGesvW-Zz9DPcuRX1ori2N8tDSEs3lHJn_s8

Equatorial Guinea, 1991, revised 2012: https://arweave.net/o6faf4eP2hD3aa04k-Fu6WxIJOUbiR5HLKvxVPV9RYE

Eritrea, 1997: https://arweave.net/c0kVfxkHj0uNb2KLLPmV5vUVyiU9kN3mCJfDhov7qv4

Estonia, 1992, revised 2015: https://arweave.net/pnCGpKm6AZFrfuatgYCEJGVunc7xmnaDOffVSOp1Bgc

Ethiopia, 1994: https://arweave.net/bmekVqtfXK3HbL26io-P4irTUgLZXPyBGX3qEwPbOOA

Fiji, 2013: https://arweave.net/o2MGrO_7kY_dsK_W6CpqDoWw_9YO8_m6BXqi4pDGzR0

Finland, 1999, revised 2011: https://arweave.net/3WU11HqrzNURRfE5z63N1npoK8cZvUOgXIPeJ38X8Mw

France, 1958, revised 2008: https://arweave.net/6IHo4EvARLhaZ2_E8j2YvqoJvLlQ9UkDo9LlkwrCaYw

Gabon, 1991, revised 2011: https://arweave.net/oWV2k_sQoLXv-WXJhjTsyP-0SQwpDWeZI316GU4VWms

(The) Gambia, 1996, revised 2004: https://arweave.net/5Ky6x0ziARVqAz5SWmTdDVkZmTI8lJhVhrAZ-VvGWr4

Georgia, 1995, revised 2013: https://arweave.net/3DLaG08JCsi-nHnSMiYfSKLeiYmGKXN4nI2moV5UF_U

Germany, 1949, revised 2014: https://arweave.net/aR0j052saIvH7P_K1JoosUN6sKmaWYR0lHuJCa-bMgc

Ghana, 1992, revised 1996: https://arweave.net/zTf4h5hD2cHIPslmYOqolMcZB3cbgVKtwiUYZXET5Dk

Greece, 1975, revised 2008: https://arweave.net/y2YzfRlNGF3sVqzJ9c8rM9o4VhPYIVuHdEBn4AIuORA

Grenada, 1972, reinstated 1991, revised 1992: https://arweave.net/W873L8QSmVB3CgikUPrvcrw2T8k3R7l99RpHL90EPDk

Guatemala, 1985, revised 1993: https://arweave.net/TuOV5JtqLL5iehSjUB50KZ4C_G_rk745qKdBiKPTC5Y

Guinea, 2010: https://arweave.net/3UpY3vkg8GOTPlVg05XEZ1Zi4SVqpuvYa9r9Vq6Fwik

Guinea-Bissau, 1984, revised 1996: https://arweave.net/txQWtzsvg6uuzA91vmbTksLFA1BPHteJp4SX1jTUOi4

Guyana, 1980, revised 2016: https://arweave.net/1l54jbHozloOKO0Tjvpn0hrYSJUK-1TFDbLjSpFy7bc

Haiti, 1987, revised 2012: https://arweave.net/NtDYpbXlFTW5TLUp5zMD9jL9C_lhW0WI87X1AACHsCA

Honduras, 1982, revised 2013: https://arweave.net/yDzzP1OoG7-VJSMTZH8NLReQ9udNK522D-ploMPI4pI

Hungary, 2011, revised 2016: https://arweave.net/fpIo2pzsIa0mtyIhdM0vdK5CMmB99RWSPFW8tGjF36A

Iceland, 1944, revised 2013: https://arweave.net/CUileLn77HIOUpywqHAIpq37Dlne5e5lmiPRjDjMpm0

Iceland, 2011 (draft of 29th July 2011): https://arweave.net/-NsjekZAHPlDkMZhmBIQ-Y3rRH8HYhT-5Rtpj3cIqak

India, 1949, revised 2016: https://arweave.net/0Vh5rjdB3NQbWotiEh_rRoF2IU13MvMmLVp7vmEd1JY

Indonesia, 1945, reinstated 1959, revised 2002: https://arweave.net/xpW-Ez4Dobggt83kle9phxEvKCfi80nxNHEb16pAr-o

(Islamic Republic of) Iran, 1979, revised 1989: https://arweave.net/JuiPBsZxD4G5MTOKxTrpZGNTivVt5Pg3hPswRof6OpQ

Iraq, 2005: https://arweave.net/0-CXOATfvR7Mdt6OrNc4LrjgrYnHwB3bYugMY6e1m6I

Ireland, 1937, revised 2015: https://arweave.net/uYfilNrKjIH1kMBEYZq3BhstBU14UnZ6cK7GXxHtrnU

Israel, 1958, revised 2013: https://arweave.net/Kt5gZGpsPkceEoLzHMBhYtYf8hkZNAwonmk5VlnuG2o

Italy, 1947, revised 2002: https://arweave.net/LmW6ZXlsHrBMTALFg7_jwxsGayyNAo8pHkyBOxIzNGg

Jamaica, 1952, revised 2016: https://arweave.net/jNCKkF60Ld8AT6MAVh2eraVbYVfMqL7PD-XPcbtK51k

Japan, 1946: https://arweave.net/WYWpF__F693iao26DYuNegSSK8TXe5v2PMMUEwDm39A

Jordan, 1952, revised 2016: https://arweave.net/at4qafXfj2cL_N3o26JpcFXzmINahQF0-mW0kd3bkls

Kazakhstan, 1995, revised 2017: https://arweave.net/74sIuT613d2iWOxn0Ctbw0aWBGk9ZttgmuJDwE1rn9Q

Kenya, 2010: https://arweave.net/JgLITrHMIyaDsQuit5HlkF7SLgj-spDMrzMqA1KUu-s

Kiribati, 1979, revised 2013: https://arweave.net/uy0m8OVVe5u5gtXsZq4wG7eZGWUYcDrcGyeQb80Z-3o

(Democratic People’s Republic of) Korea, 1972, revised 2016: https://arweave.net/mwQkRMOoYaGT_AcpqtrxjqtD3MsdA0SK3EqjFji4ruQ

(Republic of) Korea, 1948, revised 1987: https://arweave.net/KSC-EdwzOydVGH5xNblMC75UwR62FUeQDW59k19o01w

Kosovo, 2008, revised 2016: https://arweave.net/8aTx10ed8jbxTHJ-2NwqF_GQNKEvWCI7wi9x5m94oX0

Kuwait, 1962, reinstated 1992: https://arweave.net/4MYuytwVG5URiOgpRw6XCHAcSSKSJAkNbRDhg2KmhKw

Kyrgyzstan, 2010, revised 2016: https://arweave.net/J70zvVZEPNdBY-Ush3DUpdhNdd3TlSr82C_D-htQDSM

Lao People’s Democratic Republic, 1991, revised 2003: https://arweave.net/Hrjz1CE--j4o4Ym0j11aV7uqT3sORwMAAeyWLwVRRRI

Latvia, 1922, reinstated 1991, revised 2016: https://arweave.net/JURHR7k9LpQEfiUpF69fks7tF9AXp1tpZ_swdwPoPdc

Lebanon, 1926, revised 2004: https://arweave.net/xR5LsisjPyR7izT-S1rRk8OQ-4rhZ4ZsYH4Cn0bhCIE

Lesotho, 1993, revised 2011: https://arweave.net/agyQtUA0OM3NoIjPCfmBotk6mAGEAPQabqoZ47XYz48

Liberia, 1986: https://arweave.net/yTIONH9mzjkSK9pAmKK7AqKsiKUb_I8XDtJ785Vjugk

Libya, 2011, revised 2012: https://arweave.net/ImvFb9L8iQyTjoUtTOfZ7O68mTJoRG3l1LEiEf7Xd9o

Libya, 2016 (draft of 2nd March 2016): https://arweave.net/MONskcAc6XuUs60h-mFIR-k9cW0EAryJfddAYuKcLic

Liechtenstein, 1921, revised 2011: https://arweave.net/CYwoGgaeo1gwQXs296R3wEGXvnCZlqhdndfrydXkxTA

Lithuania, 1992, revised 2006: https://arweave.net/5rZgqB5QywUYCpsGsZ2HKIIyoSu-NNE9UOj6s2tjGG8

Luxembourg, 1868, revised 2009: https://arweave.net/H3ab73zyECQj_Hd3KW9FqLf5njM6PojV9svbng06y-Y

(Republic of) Macedonia, 1991, revised 2011: https://arweave.net/thVENwvrK73Ykh6zNz-RuacJK_nedSM--5FvDNcVZ_I

Madagascar, 2010: https://arweave.net/dhcP_Ff9S4ni9LGZBJg3usmwLAo4wW_NptPe3rQgPk0

Malawi, 1994, revised 2017: https://arweave.net/XMMrgYIzmN4FjYSLBBpXknEKO6Em-JTqBXQ4wjeTxr4

Malaysia, 1957, revised 2007: https://arweave.net/p4ZjVwcEqQe15ChIvFhthvOAlLLqPPFIegWUwbsqGAo

Maldives, 2008: https://arweave.net/4tTB76yrMp2sIXLPtlrgLNn_x3ro9KCtZu1zzHG3O9k

Mali, 1992: https://arweave.net/_bZhG1oMwfcvQzXufxrWyP4BVLhC-2CAX_ACXKpTq0E

Malta, 1964, revised 2016: https://arweave.net/A-Mhc5zzql9tO66BlhLnwJy20NH4S0qiwgjrEmwqdh8

Marshall Islands, 1979, revised 1995: https://arweave.net/ya7s2fj5HBZCHnfpFDef3wCpfTthoMsQhGdcNA3ZNSA

Mauritania, 1991, revised 2012: https://arweave.net/DJ9XrRvjhjYa1MJFGzISu7WeX-d5bfMBIHUBKlWEyMI

Mauritius, 1968, revised 2016: https://arweave.net/iZVRebykiWEagULpoboNZINtEL4gNdKzl6B1fAYKYWQ

Mexico, 1917, revised 2015: https://arweave.net/ZTzdPik1Q6rFwNOt673-_6BtiR1O0WGsFFKYoWTbJ3k

(Federated States of) Micronesia, 1978, revised 1990: https://arweave.net/qgUD6G_tEp7mRko0dRzeEx-jIPrRA9YcUPtAiTBsz30

(Republic of) Moldova, 1994, revised 2016: https://arweave.net/5zdojnB9q7pS0sRF8uAURh3LDIKpRZTO2l_bHW6i1xw

Monaco, 1962, revised 2002: https://arweave.net/ xlImkR8Gst2g8UV00jD2QZORqHW9UrijVxyD3iFdB4Q

Mongolia, 1992, revised 2001: https://arweave.net/SbmAGhGfYAj8ypEccy1djgbcIVYiwMTGXcR-JZ0NBBQ

Montenegro, 2007, revised 2013: https://arweave.net/uuYAxPORAkig8YzQ3jy83enD_BeYfWDysvowBlCB_VY

Morocco, 2011: https://arweave.net/NFuGiajeBvjRUQSu9uLQy6nX-Ccm-R9XCfFmj5Nn9Yo

Mozambique, 2004, revised 2007: https://arweave.net/E4h1IdnXyzvW41o87meBxdtE_OR90-w7GXaqQDylgEE

Myanmar, 2008: https://arweave.net/nBsSH_r5V0QJDQ1_-H9gInxQSQ-i-ebm6i8LC-BKY8w

Namibia, 1990, revised 2014: https://arweave.net/PfA0ITXowXrRmTPnK1wpyfcBdEmBrd1xCTeDJyIfRHM

Nauru, 1968, revised 2015: https://arweave.net/yRj8PlY3DYh8cuzgtzHp2oPNPpjNTfZedWEv5OsRgpA

Nepal, 2015, revised 2016: https://arweave.net/kTiFnrPlDf9_CiIaDgcREwv3C6TgG3LAgJJyc1sHveE

Netherlands, 1815, revised 2008: https://arweave.net/v3Kc7yD2JJF6ZRJ-F7nGfvee65tsUttVeZOx1zL-H_U

New Zealand, 1852, revised 2014: https://arweave.net/Do5vmW-2NYXiUbVkq4tRGjhrlTrcTv_Bi0nYkxr8JtY

Nicaragua, 1987, revised 2014: https://arweave.net/efMxqSnzhfLdbJ3ykr0V93YI5n4rwgcCUhI5kdo4gUk

Niger, 2010, revised 2017: https://arweave.net/hP2XyTrpEo4Rs03pSgYuD83MR0bPRZYYlDR7pfsE82s

Nigeria, 1999, revised 2011: https://arweave.net/sG56_BfNc5mhv0FAyfu-20YCjeHxFu9T7sIX7uuX7FM

Norway, 1814, revised 2016: https://arweave.net/vMZj0jw4bOqlsQZOZ7LD7MolFjji9KLxFhmVTJjDteQ

Oman, 1996, revised 2011: https://arweave.net/gwqMdCRYqK6bzJwvNfnZXBQryQkFwyTTyhKUWOuf73E

Pakistan, 1973, reinstated 2002, revised 2017: https://arweave.net/FIrbj3hZrU-_C0aNmmhr7tsZryIpBDApDShV-XiRkWQ

Palau, 1981, revised 1992: https://arweave.net/hVHAhyBL4zLyv2e_pmrD1DDuH0P45oD6YtCSE5K3ZpM

Palestine, 2003, revised 2005: https://arweave.net/RN1SX5EhaIZ2T-0-GO8SvGLmTGkabFq8-jJCze1fghI

Panama, 1972, revised 2004: https://arweave.net/IKBLdmBp7P1NqW7Riiqr2POdY4NcaISzhB8x-Papc8E

Papua New Guinea, 1975, revised 2016: https://arweave.net/o0nYd8GPj4jB8OYJo3p8FIdhxHpiW1Ty0C4gxpVS0_I

Paraguay, 1992, revised 2011: https://arweave.net/jloCqfC3NmKG6LJWX13p33OTQIuboJT9OQEoWmhmnas

Peru, 1993, revised 2009: https://arweave.net/dkH672V8GwHLlblfZbUOhPZLVewslNzoNAMDUtZDZ34

Philippines, 1987: https://arweave.net/hB0rieF6FQWjgW3DvSf2Vch256S9JGS08xvz8hgTgEY

Poland, 1997, revised 2009: https://arweave.net/DR0jZMTb5ABPYA618FZoUG4ArgKW4gbx0u722tpuKqw

Portugal, 1976, revised 2005: https://arweave.net/TuVxAUUTSLY2Y5y35krRCSd1sxhchbZpGxZlblZ8r8w

Qatar, 2003: https://arweave.net/fOXr1OlqGLlE8laO9gcoITZK3AexPuR8uguX6n_fJ2E

Romania, 1991, revised 2003: https://arweave.net/DhPq_M0-0vwSI8QZbFOKVzbiKRspkZVMVYVinj3eDr8

Russian Federation, 1993: revised 2014: https://arweave.net/YoMXVkpkj7uB0L43noE72MJa5EkSeZGFN_bTY7cyC44

Rwanda, 2003, revised 2015: https://arweave.net/tNDWOralv2A1n0y4rAHmD7KRuS-Oz1MmmgrbvRwvogE

Saint Kitts and Nevis, 1983: https://arweave.net/1EOsDluXr4QWoF_qnDG_DID9UfDJXPDcd3CObBPwg9s

Saint Lucia, 1978: https://arweave.net/0talPaUeFflUqdKzxYB64eTzTdO7rilcf_NXkJ6gsL0

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, 1979: https://arweave.net/HKIrO_UZ1-x3926BjodMoY_DR92PQ6ZgaT63Ee4i1cs

Samoa, 1962, revised 2017: https://arweave.net/corf0I6NLcC3M8U56HXt4Lk1p6lRtOYuyRVDBmprSE4

Sao Tome and Principe, 1975, revised 2003: https://arweave.net/rASjk742FiNGLYlI8bB_X8ZW2Fc299hjiEY-MYMEb80

Saudi Arabia, 1992, revised 2013: https://arweave.net/v8ngxZqvhnA3GvreKEpZlgvUA8ugEFM9YKWrtqtSs20

Senegal, 2001, revised 2016: https://arweave.net/i959wzl0tIjj72a98MSLLa1YPtk4SPHK6zG8GWLBxaA

Serbia, 2006: https://arweave.net/P_nPeMULLyJi46dB0AyxV3X0UKLzbOLrph_SZbwlYMA

Seychelles, 1993, revised 2017: https://arweave.net/g0WkjXQxZJqVDsMNlda77IPD9G1cfKCUY-gRqRszGRY

Sierra Leone, 1991, reinstated 1996, revised 2013: https://arweave.net/PkIvd6yiOYEX42v0d4wbGoycyrBjawpFQDfzOoiShq0

Singapore, 1963, revised 2016: https://arweave.net/cC-kbokZLcfEXLYD_lSPQ-boyXeKAR5nddANz83E2-k

Slovakia, 1992, revised 2017: https://arweave.net/1t7sa5eUvtcxYjrGhGA8P2ongcQelf4KhuBYQ3YSY68

Slovenia, 1991, revised 2016: https://arweave.net/t0nam6Q9kw1A_VGwQfZqv7b2kOjvdsZxTnmkwxOK7hc

Solomon Islands, 1978, revised 2014: https://arweave.net/-cpjBewmATWto-kzXf9jnLGpmL4PS5yk_hFbXULPhs0

Somalia, 2012: https://arweave.net/PFpoIET0XvAgd788h70SXZwecCjEJ4GinMhoHM7ScdE

South Africa, 1996, revised 2012: https://arweave.net/K61YVMyITCzuCnRmltNaZX2gaosPgINIRo9wUrpdZBQ

(The Republic of) South Sudan, 2011, revised 2013: https://arweave.net/mn2e6pjL-jQj3rJYznUy6tHx2wJEEe9NoPAlohhuK60

Spain, 1978, revised 2011: https://arweave.net/RJ8JgPmwR2-DmFfsfBybzAv9il-hBxCbO8nRQ81owgA

Sri Lanka, 1978, revised 2015: https://arweave.net/9Oik_SRViV_xM1brYscFVCW7gfEFaQalpAITTjTr9hs

Sudan, 2005: https://arweave.net/EeKMdYygFwrqXsWiv5WMQtgh0Z9DLOx0TFCX5xDewGw

Suriname, 1987, revised 1992: https://arweave.net/lfz-wNWTiAom3dLebsB_z_tEOlVDytN-8QwK1G_cTz0

Swaziland, 2005: https://arweave.net/vWrHVr2wpiyQYC0WjcLRa4wOYFizrAxjcsdHVVvkFbo

Sweden, 1974, revised 2012: https://arweave.net/sysCfN-odWen1Q88-v9BNnrSq1FG2M7OaJBuQQDVA4U

Switzerland, 1999, revised 2014: https://arweave.net/sAabe_4DgPNrbTIrYCTxnzkhs7bin-nb6wjUPsMRTiI

Syrian Arab Republic, 2012: https://arweave.net/rRIfEYaTpWY8hIMaqc3J5fZ5qMXdQtyvqnWBwhMYEuk

Syrian Arab Republic, 2017 (draft of 23rd January 2017): https://arweave.net/0Wo7umgrrv792-L0kl38LpGXavqsGKQfPJpYFrG1-W4

Taiwan (Republic of China), 1947, revised 2005: https://arweave.net/YKsBPYa0WTGrRRONev80ipFYojW4WWK4q1AvG3AgK1E

Tajikistan, 1994, revised 2003: https://arweave.net/mU6D-h_LG9G4ikcE-qwfxGLpSzgJB2NsravYY26tiYU

(United Republic of) Tanzania, 1977, revised 2005: https://arweave.net/TSShBCntchLKTCR1zRRu0Lj85-qujAVYV3kIA_euzB4

Thailand, 2017: https://arweave.net/aD7L1-DdOq7lIHwgOR5lsgh--qpZM9LyvLGk4eO4AWI

Timor-Leste, 2002: https://arweave.net/rPC0wSdoj7IpCqAeRHeFYHBZdbR1_Uuye45xvwspt4E

Togo, 1992, revised 2007: https://arweave.net/ze-YjjbvyUOl-kQun9lz2FyDIS2_CfpORxdR2DowbZU

Tonga, 1875, revised 2013: https://arweave.net/xGvdsAoLjEiHzTU06p0HHwVorIovStIZ-himULhoFDY

Trinidad and Tobago, 1976, revised 2007: https://arweave.net/aztwVjPh8joggPLTB140hpa_BBbaCxhmX_9ZSqfMuZI

Tunisia, 2014: https://arweave.net/4ujPILXB4jRhmkXW3Js9OY68oVDnWZ4E_JhScszstFg

Turkey, 1982, revised 2017: https://arweave.net/IPYQKNk6_bcSBz8cbQyIZvLXbgpkFx8usXhJv86cwsI

Turkmenistan, 2008, revised 2016: https://arweave.net/_fXqRsjdvvZPQ5rxbTiPBcTglg5DTnuOXmaRqViGSsc

Tuvalu, 1986, revised 2010: https://arweave.net/u1zShwO18ZSch3CCsoummSoNdDZL43YGCm6xs_BeagA

Uganda, 1995, revised 2017: https://arweave.net/A7ysDaObZYzx5Tl7Vu5ZPFkJ6tX0wyvQPJuAZNQ69eo

Ukraine, 1996, revised 2016: https://arweave.net/QqMNPxEwReURebJpvsPsvl6QIYNKlnZZyEM7ggNXdBY

United Arab Emirates, 1971, revised 2009: https://arweave.net/uNLi-4pwWs9Mic5Y6EMUWzVTg6tewy1tIgq3TJFxPFk

United States of America, 1789, revised 1992: https://arweave.net/m4up8Ekc3fmNYr6zoxLB846C9DnuuRW4sE7hHsGnclk

Uruguay, 1966, reinstated 1985, revised 2004: https://arweave.net/OhxWsoTEOtAzydMDjgVPOey6kVEDCSJQZ85zSCpiZg8

Uzbekistan, 1992, revised 2011: https://arweave.net/UEaDMxlmY1Ti7Lk3-G00v-IszyQ9ba1lR2-MtuvAenk

Vanuatu, 1980, revised 2013: https://arweave.net/Oywh5SkBitNKaHgsUWE9qhoeCRDs5V4qgVjfrKliTrI

(Bolivarian Republic of) Venezuela, 1999, revised 2009: https://arweave.net/z4vVWgksXHRIgf1THVJtssECZR0FxHspPnVanHn4PNk

(Socialist Republic of) Vietnam, 1992, revised 2013: https://arweave.net/1_JbnQdwPKCXGMocz75e_ARWx2qQD5eedlb4MN9kueY

Yemen, 1991, revised 2015: https://arweave.net/YnSdIJ0kZCjUsepnVtTGaCWY1qGwCAMvtALdRK5cqF4

Yemen, 2015 (draft of 15th January 2015): https://arweave.net/qSiOw01U30kCm0ue-OcgLzGmJ0igD4JQbsPRgG4rDPA

Zambia, 1991, revised 2016: https://arweave.net/OfIGixcJ2rBNUwJMJOXD1AjiCxQ07N9ujIci509hY3U

Zimbabwe, 2013, revised 2017: https://arweave.net/N5hkpOQWDPwf5hsZVrywMyMgmeT_tDFFn_bsuNlBAbc

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